The Philippines 

Clark, home of the 9th ASA 

          The Army Security agency dispatched Jeff to the Philippines. The agency maintained rear area facilities there. The 9th ASA was garrisoned at a US Air Force base on the island of Luzon. Powerful antenna fields picked up North Vietnamese communications that Jeff and other Vietnamese linguists (lingys) read.  The work was classified Top Secret.
          The pace of the war at that point moved slowly, so Jeff and pals had ample off-duty opportunity for travel and adventure in the tropics.

Waiting for War


#1        After finishing the year-long Vietnamese language course at ALS, Jeff was dispatched to the Army Security Agency’s 9th Battalion at Clark Air Base on the island of Luzon in the Philippines. He worked in a heavily guarded Operations building surrounded by barbed wire and lit up by powerful floodlights during night shifts.

  The work was classified Top Secret/Cryptographic, but off-duty there were many diversions on and off the base. There was a typical GI town not far from Clark with an array of bars and brothels, the capital Manila to the north with its bright lights, and the resort town of Baguio high and cool above the steamy  lowlands.

  Jeff and his good buddy Keith frequented these places. It was the early ‘60s, and locales like Corregidor and Bataan of the Pacific war were also not far from Clark. Below, Keith describes their transportation arrangements; another GI from the 9th remembers Angeles City; and the military’s daily paper, Pacific Stars & Stripes writes of grim reminders of WWII.

Tales from the Philippines

  There were two ways to get to Manila 60 miles away – by bus or by train. The bus was cheaper, but it made many stops and was crowded with locals often transporting chickens in bags underneath their seats. There were no facilities aboard, so the driver would pull over as needed for a piss stop – women on one side, men on the other.  

  While waiting in the bus station for the ride back to Clark, Jeff and Keith would play Frisbee to the amazement of the Filipinos. Other times, the guys would travel by train to the capital, much more comfortable with white tablecloths in 1st class.
           The journey 12 miles up to Baguio by twisting mountain road was more perilous. Not long before Jeff arrived at Clark, the GI paper reported:

        A passenger bus on its way to Baguio 
Thursday hurtled down a 180-foot ravine, 

killing 5 persons and injuring 27 others, 

7 of them critically.

     Angeles City beyond the gates of Clark reminded Keith of an old American Western town. Much of it was ramshackle, the streets dusty with domestic animals wandering about, and horse-drawn vehicles still in use.
n the Western spirit, another GI remembered a lot of danger in the Philippines, especially in Angeles City, which he described as “one of the roughest places on earth. Numerous US military, mostly Air Force guys, lost their lives for no other reason than they had a few pesos in their pockets.” 
           But he also recalled a GI from the 9th who was luckier – he staggered out of an alley with severe gut wounds, but survived to retire as a Sergeant Major. 
          Shortly after Jeff arrived in the PI, off-duty Air Force personnel out for a day of climbing on an extinct volcano within sight of the base came upon the wreckage of a WW II C-47 with two human skeletons nearby. The plane was at the bottom of a ravine aflame with wild orchids of many hues.
          The head-high grass and surrounding banyan trees of the impenetrable jungle had made it impossible to see the plane from the air.                                                                             


#2          Not long after deployment to the 9th ASA at Clark Air Base, Jeff wrote home describing his typical day, that is, everything but his classified work on the night shift at the Operations building. 

Susie Wong’s World 

          When I wake up in the afternoon, I do errands, read in bed, or go to the pool. I generally go to Happy Hour at the Airmen’s Club from 4:30 to 5:30 in the afternoons. All drinks are then only 10 cents, normally 20 cents, while weeds run 95 cents a carton. I either stay there until 11 in the evening or go into town with a buddy.
         The town is called Angeles, and it is right outside the base. It’s like something out of Susie Wong’s world, just like those Far Eastern army towns you read about in war novels. All the joints have American names like Plaza Bar, Skylight, Keyhole. It’s one huge collection of bars, whores, beds, Jeepney drivers, horse and buggy conveyances, and the most poverty-stricken people I have ever seen. The girls are mostly young, from 17 to 35. 



#3      Life for Jeff and buddies in the Philippines was pretty laid back until political tensions rose in war time Vietnam and guys shipped out.

Like the Old West

There was an off-base watering hole, a town called Angeles City. It was a dirt-street Army town where everything was cheap, and pigs, chickens, and horse-drawn carts crowded the dusty streets.

        It was like the Old West of the United States revisited. A pig was once spotted entering the open door of a bank. This and other noteworthy gems made the experience hilarious … for six months. Then, things changed!


 #4       The contrast between Jeff’s posting in the Philippines and Phu Bai, where he spent much of his time in Nam, was striking. Keith Willis served with Jeff in the 9th ASA at Clark Air Base and described the laid-back, easy going life there: 

Happy Hours Were Very, Very Happy

           We worked behind a barbed-wire walled compound. Ten guards with loaded rifles were at the entrance. Actually this PI duty station was a first-class vacation spot. There were five-cent beers, lighted tennis courts, spacious swimming pools, and constant sun.

          Also, the Airmen’s Club had free, live entertainment every day during Happy Hour. Happy Hours were very, very happy, every day!


#5       Keith and Jeff went on from ALS to the 9th ASA at Clark Air Base in the Philippines. Jeff preceded Keith by several months. Angeles City, a GI tank town, was not far from the base. Keith and Jeff sometimes went there together off-duty. 

Girls Would Whistle

           They would walk down the street, the Filipino girls would whistle and call out to Jeff who would ignore them. He explained to Keith that because of his dark complexion and ‘European’ look, the girls thought he was Spanish, and Spaniards enjoyed high status in the Philippines.


#6      Peyton recalls Fred Baumann.

Jeff Was Non-Tormentable

          Fred Baumann was a big kidder, a friendly tormentor in the PI. He’d convert buddies’ names into something to do with pigs, e.g., Willis became Swillis. Asked what nickname for Jeff, he said Jeff was non-tormentable.


#7       In some ways, the 9th ASA at Clark AFB was a kind of repo depot or personnel center for Vietnam. It’s not clear whether the secret work regimen was of military value, or merely busy-work to keep the troops sharp and occupied until needed in VN.

Destination Vietnam

         The 9th ASA was home to a generation of wide-eyed lads, seeking adventure and finding instead paradise or extreme boredom. Most ASA personnel at the 9th would find themselves on a TDY roster with destinations for stations in Vietnam, Thailand, and other locations.

         Stotsenberg Station at Clark AFB had existed since 1902 and continued until it and the air base were covered with volcanic ash by the eruption of Mt Pinatubo, then abandoned by the US in ’91.


#8       A description of Clark AFB from Jeff’s time there.

Home of the ‘Jungle Air Force’

           The 13th Air Force based at Clark AFB has the job of ‘guarding against communist aggression’. Clark, the home of the ‘Jungle Air Force’, is the biggest overseas air base in the world.

           The approximate population of Clark: 8,500 military personnel, 7,500 dependents, 500 civilian employees, and 14,000 Filipino civilians who work on the base. The total: About 31,000.


#9        Jeff’s initial impressions of his new assignment in the PI were generally positive, even enthusiastic.

The South Pacific Looks Enchanting

           In early ’63, Jeff set off from Travis Air Base north of San Francisco to the Far East via Honolulu. En route, he wrote home, ‘Hawaii is beautiful and warm. I’m on a Super Constellation. It will take 30 hours to get to the Philippines. The South Pacific looks enchanting’.

           He described his new base as ‘a little piece of America’ with the pool across the street, tennis courts nearby, and the enlisted men’s open mess called the Coconut Grove, next door.

          ‘You hear music everywhere on base. It’s from Armed Forces Radio, which we get on our transistors and through speakers in the clubs and rec areas. It’s a strange combination of Country Western and Rock ‘n Roll, everything from Your Cheating Heart and Oklahoma Hills to Little Richard’s Good Golly, Miss Molly and lots of Ray Charles.


#10     Keith Willis describes the living arrangement and work routine at Clark AB.

Brightly Lit with Flood Lights

          At Clark, Jeff was in a 4-man room with two sets of bunk beds, a table, a chair, and lockers for each man. Inspections were infrequent.

         There were three work shifts: 8 AM-4 PM, 4-Midnight, 12-8. Military dress on the graveyard shift when there was no officer was very casual, unlike the day shift.

          A bus transported the GIs to work. It was about a 10-minute drive to the compound, which at night was brightly lit with flood lights. It was a one-story cement block building with various rooms inside. The work space was air conditioned and quite cold.

          Each lingy wore a laminated ID badge on a chain around his neck. The operations building was surrounded by a chain link fence topped with barbed wire. There was a guard shack at the entrance manned by several ASA security guards who took their jobs very seriously.

          The night shift usually consisted of five men – 3 Viet lingys, a Chinese lingy, and a crypt, or cryptologist. Each man worked at a desk with a desk lamp, although there were also overhead fluorescents. The room was 10x20’ in size with five or six desks. There was a bathroom.

          Armed Forces Radio played all night, always Country Western.


#11      Keith and Jeff hung out together at Clark, just as they had at ALS.

Pigs Roaming the Streets

   Jeff and I used to go to Angeles City together where in many of the bars, one sat at tables. He remembers looking out the window at one place, seeing pigs and other animals roaming the streets, carts passing by and dust rising, and thinking that it resembled the Old West.               

#12     Keith Willis and I compared notes on our respective ASA experiences in the ‘50s and the ‘60s. For his generation, an attitude of irreverence toward ASA, the Army, and, no doubt, the mission, was SOP.                             

Coming Through the Fulda Gap

            In contrast, for my ASA cohort in Europe, the Cold War was a deadly serious business. We had arrived in Germany not long after the crushing of the Hungarian Revolution when the regime was still hanging ‘counter-revolutionaries’ in the mopping up operation.

           Any time we might forget the Cold War, we’d be reminded by a 4 AM alert with sirens wailing, and of course we never knew if it was just another drill or the real thing – the Soviet tank army in the GDR coming through the Fulda Gap.


#13     While at Clark, Jeff would from time to time go to Manila with Keith or Peyton.

Sunsets over Manila Bay

           After nearly 50 years of occupation, the US had left an indelible imprint on the PI. Manila, the capital on the island of Luzon, was a flamboyant blend of American, Oriental, South Seas, and old Spanish cultures.

           Although it was now named in honor of a PI president, the splendid seaside esplanade had been called Dewey Boulevard after the American admiral. A parallel street called Taft Avenue is bisected by streets named Nebraska, Dakota, and so on.

           Around 6 PM, the visitor could see some of the most spectacular sunsets in the world over Manila Bay.


#14     The US military daily in the Far East called Baguio ‘playground of the Pacific’. Not only Jeff and buddies at Clark enjoyed the cool mountain resort, but GIs based in VN on R&R as well. They’d fly to Manila and bus to the foot of the mountains.

5,000 Feet above Sea Level

           About an hour and a half from the destination, visitors must change to smaller buses for the trek up the narrow, winding mountain road to Baguio, some 5,000 feet above sea level.


#15     Peyton Bryan, one of Jeff’s buddies in PI, described the operation.

058s Called ‘Ditty Boppers’

           At the 9th ASA, the main mission was keeping track of North Vietnamese civilians by monitoring PT&T, the Philippine Telephone & Telegraph Company. The giant antenna field could pick up traffic all the way up to the Chinese border. Yonowitz, or Yoney, kept the unit’s personnel files on the NVN on an early version of IBM on punch cards. The files ran into the thousands.

           The 058s, called Ditty Boppers, would intercept the traffic while Jeff, Peyton, and others would translate. Sometimes the scripts were sketchy, so a lingy would sit down with a ditty bopper along with a dictionary, and they’d try to figure out the missing word or words.


Clearly, the Pentagon was stockpiling Vietnamese linguists, no doubt anticipating a larger war. While awaiting the call to war, the lingys were based at Clark AB in the PI.

ASA Was Doubly Over strength

          Although the work went on 24/7, the 9th ASA was doubly over strength in Viet lingys, so Jeff and buddies had plenty of time on their hands. Days were spent lounging at the pool, evenings drinking at the Airmen’s Club on base.

          Or they’d go into the town outside the base, Angeles City, which Jeff described as ‘something out of Susie Wong’s world, just like those Far Eastern army towns you read about in war novels’.

         The place was a huge collection of bars with American names like Plaza Bar, Skylight, Keyhole, and, Jeff added, the most ‘whores, beds, Jeepney drivers, horse and buggy conveyances, and poverty-stricken people’, I’ve ever seen.


#17      Keith Willis followed Jeff to the 9th ASA in ’63. He and Jeff often hung out together, and Jeff’s experience in PI mirrored Keith’s. 

After Every Beer

          When we went to Angeles City, after every beer Jeff had to go to the bathroom.


#18        Manila was an easy trip by bus or train. On 12/11/63 Keith wrote:

Today Is Election Day

            This past weekend I was in Manila with Sharlet. I had a great time going places and doing things.

    Today is Election Day in the PI. Everybody is restricted to base. They take their elections quite seriously here and often great wars break out between opposing camps. Many people have been killed in the last month.


#19       Everyday life was very inexpensive.

A Little Money Goes a Long, Long Way

             I still work the mid-shift and usually sleep from 8:30-11:30 AM. Then I pick up a few more hours later in day after swimming, tennis, and sloe gin (10 cents a drink). Life is really quite enjoyable so far.

             I have spent a lot of time in Manila and other such places. They have all been very friendly in this place where a little money goes a long, long way. Hotel rooms run about $1.75 a night.


#20       In a letter dated 11/22/63, Keith added a fateful postscript in hand.

We Heard of the President’s Assassination

            In the middle of the night, we heard of the President’s assassination. No words can describe the gloom that hangs over this place. It is as if a little bit of everyone suddenly died away.

          It was more than a shock to us here – much more than a shock.


#21     A few days later, Keith commented further on the assassination.

News of the President’s Death

        After all the good times came the news of the President’s death. How incomprehensible the whole thing was. No words could ever describe how it affected people here – outrage, hate, tears, and prayers.


#22    Early Feb ’64, Keith wrote home about the latest adventure.

Vietnam Is Grim

        Just arrived back from Saigon. I was on hand for 3-4 days for the coup. Sharlet went over with me.

        Airplane ride both ways was smooth a la TWA. Japanese stewardesses were really neat on one flight.

        Vietnam is grim – rats, mosquitoes, cholera – are worse than the war.


#23      Keith wrote his mother just after New Year’s ’64.

Swimming in the South China Sea

        New Year’s Eve found me on the train traveling north to a place called Dagupan. I rented a hut up there with another friend from the Language School. It was novel spending New Year’s Eve swimming in the South China Sea. 

#24      On 6/9/64, Keith wrote his sister Barbara about Jeff, whom she knew socially.

Sharlet Returned from Vietnam

           Sharlet returned from Vietnam a few weeks ago. He goes back to the States in a few weeks. His parents now live in Florida and don’t have too much bread to spare.

        I think he has saved about $1500.

#25     Keith tells his sister of his leave trip to Hong Kong.

I’m Going to Hong Kong by Boat

          On Thursday, I’m going to Hong Kong by boat. Tomorrow they have a briefing on the trip. I’ve had three shots for the trip. The Cholera gave me a little trouble as it always does, but Smallpox and Typhoid didn’t bother me much.

           I’ll need three more next month – flu, Typhus, and Plague. They keep us well shot-up here. It’s easy to understand why.


#26       Keith Willis listed some of the features of Baguio.

Summer Capital of the PI

        -- AF hospital at Camp John Hay 
        --18 -hole golf course
        --5K altitude
        --Bars:  Igloo and New Hollywood Star Bar